Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids

As Quoted In NLGI

Growth will result from increasing market penetration at the expense of conventional fluids, driven by environmental concerns, user preferences, and higher performance requirements.

US demand to rise 6.8% annually through 2018

US demand for synthetic lubricants and functional fluids is forecast to increase 6.8 percent per year to $6.3 billion in 2018, with volume rising to 555 million gallons. Growth will result from increasing market penetration of synthetic products at the expense of conventional fluids, driven by environmental concerns, user preferences, and increasingly stringent requirements for lubricant and fluid performance. The outlook for synthetic products will vary across markets and applications, with each product subject to a unique set of factors influencing demand.

Engine oils to claim biggest share of product gains

Engine oils will account for the largest share of gains through 2018. In the light vehicle market, synthetic engine oils will benefit from the trend toward low viscosity, energy efficient lubricants, which will often necessitate the use of synthetics. Over the past several years, motor vehicle manufacturers Honda and Toyota have begun specifying SAE 0W-20 motor oils for many of their new cars, while General Motors has introduced its DEXOS1 specification. In each case, these changes have increased demand for synthetic engine oils. The upcoming ILSAC GF-6 specification will facilitate the introduction of even lighter viscosity grades than those currently used, further promoting demand for synthetics. Synthetics will also begin to see wider use in the heavy-duty and off-highway segments, primarily resulting from the improved fuel efficiency and extended maintenance intervals they allow.

Aside from engine oils, a number of other synthetic products will see strong gains as well. Transmission and hydraulic fluids will be the fastest growing of these, benefiting from increasing demand for synthetic automatic transmission fluids and industrial hydraulic fluids. The impact of increasingly demanding equipment specifications, severe operating conditions, and the ability to improve energy efficiency will be key driving factors for sales of these fluids. Synthetic metalworking fluids and dielectric fluids will continue to be used where they can provide worker safety or environmental benefits or meet a specific performance requirement.

Energy, automotive among strongest markets

The energy and power generation, automotive equipment, and industrial machinery markets will all offer strong growth opportunities for synthetics. In power generation, niche and emerging applications will boost growth. In automotive equipment and industrial machinery, in contrast, growth will be broad based, resulting from steady gains in market size paired with increasing penetration of synthetics.

Study coverage

This Freedonia industry study, Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids, presents historical demand data for 2003, 2008 and 2013, with forecasts for 2018 and 2023 by product (e.g., engine oils, antifreeze and deicing fluids, transmission and hydraulic fluids, heat transfer fluids, metalworking fluids, dielectric fluids), material (e.g., glycols, polyalphaolefins, esters, Group III base oils) and market (e.g., automotive, metals, aircraft/aerospace, energy/power generation, industrial machinery, process industries).

The study also considers market environment factors, details industry structure, evaluates company market share and profiles 27 industry competitors, including Exxon Mobil, Prestone Products and Royal Dutch Shell.

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  1. Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids

    $5,200.00

  2. INTRODUCTION - SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS TO 2018

    $0.00

  3. Methodology & Sources of Information

    $0.00

  4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS TO 2018

    $95.00

  5. Overview

    $35.00

  6. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANT & FUNCTIONAL FLUID DEMAND (million dollars) 2008 - 2023

    $60.00

  7. MARKET ENVIRONMENT - SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS TO 2018

    $1,130.00

  8. General

    $35.00

  9. Macroeconomic Outlook (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  10. Macroeconomic Outlook (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  11. Macroeconomic Outlook (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  12. MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS (billion 2009 dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  13. Demographic Outlook (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  14. Demographic Outlook (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  15. Demographic Outlook (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  16. POPULATION & HOUSEHOLDS (million persons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  17. Personal Consumption Expenditures (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  18. Personal Consumption Expenditures (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  19. PERSONAL CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURES (billion 2009 dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  20. Manufacturing Outlook (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  21. Manufacturing Outlook (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  22. Manufacturing Outlook (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  23. MANUFACTURERS’ SHIPMENTS (billion 2009 dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  24. Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids - Competitive Products

    $35.00

  25. Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids - Environmental & Regulatory Issues (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  26. Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids - Environmental & Regulatory Issues (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  27. Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids - Recycling & Re-Refining (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  28. Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids - Recycling & Re-Refining (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  29. Synthetic Lubricants - Motor Vehicle Lubricant Specifications

    $35.00

  30. Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids - Pricing Trends

    $35.00

  31. SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONAL FLUID PRICING (dollars per gallon) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  32. SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONAL FLUID PRICING VOLATILITY BY PRODUCT, 2003 - 2023 (annual percent change)

    $35.00

  33. Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids - Foreign Trade & International Activity (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  34. Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids - Foreign Trade & International Activity (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  35. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANT & FUNCTIONAL FLUID FOREIGN TRADE (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  36. PRODUCTS - SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS TO 2018

    $2,735.00

  37. Overview

    $35.00

  38. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANT & FUNCTIONAL FLUID DEMAND BY PRODUCT (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  39. Engine Oils - General

    $35.00

  40. Fully Synthetic Engine Oils - Overview (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  41. Fully Synthetic Engine Oils - Overview (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  42. Fully Synthetic Engine Oils - Overview (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  43. FULLY SYNTHETIC ENGINE OIL DEMAND BY TYPE (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  44. Fully Synthetic Engine Oils - Gasoline Engine Oils (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  45. Fully Synthetic Engine Oils - Gasoline Engine Oils (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  46. Fully Synthetic Engine Oils - Gasoline Engine Oils (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  47. FULLY SYNTHETIC GASOLINE ENGINE OIL DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  48. Fully Synthetic Engine Oils - Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oils (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  49. Fully Synthetic Engine Oils - Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oils (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  50. FULLY SYNTHETIC HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE OIL DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  51. Other Fully Synthetic Engine Oils (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  52. Other Fully Synthetic Engine Oils (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  53. OTHER FULLY SYNTHETIC ENGINE OIL DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  54. Semi-Synthetic Engine Oils (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  55. Semi-Synthetic Engine Oils (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  56. SEMI-SYNTHETIC ENGINE OIL DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  57. Antifreeze & Deicing Fluids - Overview

    $35.00

  58. SYNTHETIC ANTIFREEZE & DEICING FLUID DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  59. Antifreeze (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  60. Antifreeze (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  61. Deicing Fluids

    $35.00

  62. Transmission & Hydraulic Fluids - Overview

    $35.00

  63. SYNTHETIC TRANSMISSION & HYDRAULIC FLUID DEMAND BY PRODUCT & CHEMICAL (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  64. SYNTHETIC TRANSMISSION & HYDRAULIC FLUID DEMAND BY MARKET (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  65. Transmission Fluids (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  66. Transmission Fluids (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  67. Transmission Fluids (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  68. Hydraulic Fluids (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  69. Hydraulic Fluids (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  70. Hydraulic Fluids (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  71. Heat Transfer Fluids - Overview (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  72. Heat Transfer Fluids - Overview (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  73. SYNTHETIC HEAT TRANSFER FLUID DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  74. Heat Transfer Fluids - Low Temperature

    $35.00

  75. Heat Transfer Fluids - High Temperature (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  76. Heat Transfer Fluids - High Temperature (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  77. Metalworking Fluids - Overview

    $35.00

  78. Metalworking Fluids - Product Characteristics (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  79. Metalworking Fluids - Product Characteristics (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  80. Metalworking Fluids - Demand (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  81. Metalworking Fluids - Demand (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  82. SYNTHETIC METALWORKING FLUID DEMAND BY TYPE (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  83. SYNTHETIC METALWORKING FLUID DEMAND BY CHEMICAL (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  84. Metal Removal Fluids

    $35.00

  85. SYNTHETIC METAL REMOVAL FLUID DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  86. Metal Forming Fluids

    $35.00

  87. SYNTHETIC METAL FORMING FLUID DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  88. Other Metalworking Fluids

    $35.00

  89. OTHER SYNTHETIC METALWORKING FLUID DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  90. Dielectric Fluids (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  91. Dielectric Fluids (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  92. SYNTHETIC DIELECTRIC FLUID DEMAND 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  93. Other Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids

    $35.00

  94. OTHER SYNTHETIC LUBRICANT & FUNCTIONAL FLUID DEMAND (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  95. Gear Oils (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  96. Gear Oils (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  97. Gear Oils (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  98. Compressor Lubricants

    $35.00

  99. Turbine Lubricants (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  100. Turbine Lubricants (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  101. All Other Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  102. All Other Synthetic Lubricants & Functional Fluids (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  103. MATERIALS - SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS TO 2018

    $1,325.00

  104. Overview

    $35.00

  105. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANT & FUNCTIONAL FLUID DEMAND BY MATERIAL (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  106. Glycols in Synthetic Functional Fluids (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  107. Glycols in Synthetic Functional Fluids (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  108. Glycols in Synthetic Functional Fluids (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  109. GLYCOL DEMAND IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS BY PRODUCT (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  110. GLYCOL DEMAND IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS BY CHEMICAL (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  111. Polyalphaolefins in Synthetic Functional Fluids (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  112. Polyalphaolefins in Synthetic Functional Fluids (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  113. POLYALPHAOLEFIN DEMAND IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  114. Esters in Synthetic Functional Fluids (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  115. Esters in Synthetic Functional Fluids (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  116. Esters in Synthetic Functional Fluids (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  117. ESTER DEMAND IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS BY PRODUCT (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  118. ESTER DEMAND IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS BY CHEMICAL (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  119. Group III Base Oils in Synthetic Functional Fluids (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  120. Group III Base Oils in Synthetic Functional Fluids (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  121. Group III Base Oils in Synthetic Functional Fluids (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  122. GROUP III BASE OIL DEMAND IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  123. Aromatics in Synthetic Functional Fluids (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  124. Aromatics in Synthetic Functional Fluids (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  125. AROMATICS-BASED CHEMICAL DEMAND IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS BY PRODUCT (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  126. AROMATICS-BASED CHEMICAL DEMAND IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS BY CHEMICAL (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  127. Silicone Fluids in Synthetic Functional Fluids (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  128. Silicone Fluids in Synthetic Functional Fluids (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  129. SILICONE FLUID DEMAND IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  130. Other Materials in Synthetic Functional Fluids (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  131. Other Materials in Synthetic Functional Fluids (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  132. Other Materials in Synthetic Functional Fluids (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  133. DEMAND FOR OTHER CHEMICALS, ADDITIVES, & BLENDING COMPONENTS IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million gallons) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  134. MARKETS - SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS TO 2018

    $2,105.00

  135. Overview (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  136. Overview (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  137. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANT & FUNCTIONAL FLUID DEMAND BY MARKET (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  138. Automotive Market - Motor Vehicle & Off-Highway Equipment Outlook (1 of 4)

    $35.00

  139. Automotive Market - Motor Vehicle & Off-Highway Equipment Outlook (2 of 4)

    $35.00

  140. Automotive Market - Motor Vehicle & Off-Highway Equipment Outlook (3 of 4)

    $35.00

  141. Automotive Market - Motor Vehicle & Off-Highway Equipment Outlook (4 of 4)

    $35.00

  142. MOTOR VEHICLE & OFF-HIGHWAY EQUIPMENT INDICATORS 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  143. Automotive Market - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand

    $35.00

  144. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  145. Light Vehicles - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  146. Light Vehicles - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  147. LIGHT VEHICLE MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  148. Medium- & Heavy-Duty Vehicles - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  149. Medium- & Heavy-Duty Vehicles - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  150. MEDIUM- & HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  151. Off-Highway Equipment - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (1 of 4)

    $35.00

  152. Off-Highway Equipment - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (2 of 4)

    $35.00

  153. Off-Highway Equipment - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (3 of 4)

    $35.00

  154. Off-Highway Equipment - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (4 of 4)

    $35.00

  155. OFF-HIGHWAY EQUIPMENT MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  156. Metals - Industry Outlook

    $35.00

  157. METAL PRODUCT SHIPMENTS (billion 2009 dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  158. Metals - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand

    $35.00

  159. METALS INDUSTRY MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  160. Aircraft/Aerospace - Industry Outlook

    $35.00

  161. AIRCRAFT IN SERVICE (thousand units) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  162. Aircraft/Aerospace - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand

    $35.00

  163. AIRCRAFT/AEROSPACE MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  164. Energy/Power Generation - Industry Outlook (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  165. Energy/Power Generation - Industry Outlook (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  166. ENERGY/POWER GENERATION INDICATORS 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  167. Energy/Power Generation - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  168. Energy/Power Generation - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  169. ENERGY/POWER GENERATION MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  170. Industrial Machinery - Outlook (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  171. Industrial Machinery - Outlook (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  172. MACHINERY SHIPMENTS (billion 2009 dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  173. Industrial Machinery - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand

    $35.00

  174. INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  175. Process Manufacturing - Industry Outlook (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  176. Process Manufacturing - Industry Outlook (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  177. PROCESS MANUFACTURERS’ SHIPMENTS (billion 2009 dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  178. Process Manufacturing - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  179. Process Manufacturing - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  180. PROCESS INDUSTRIES MARKET FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  181. Other Markets - Synthetic Lubricant & Functional Fluid Demand

    $35.00

  182. OTHER MARKETS FOR SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS (million dollars) 2003 - 2023

    $60.00

  183. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE - SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS TO 2018

    $940.00

  184. General (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  185. General (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  186. US SYNTHETIC LUBRICANT & FUNCTIONAL FLUID SALES BY COMPANY, 2013 (million dollars)

    $60.00

  187. Market Share (1 of 4)

    $35.00

  188. Market Share (2 of 4)

    $35.00

  189. Market Share (3 of 4)

    $35.00

  190. Market Share (4 of 4)

    $35.00

  191. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANT & FUNCTIONAL FLUID MARKET SHARE BY LEADING COMPANIES, 2013 (percent)

    $60.00

  192. Competitive Strategies

    $35.00

  193. Research & Development

    $35.00

  194. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT SPENDING PATTERNS: SELECTED SYNTHETIC FLUID COMPANIES, 2011 - 2013 (percent of total revenues)

    $60.00

  195. Chemical Management Services

    $35.00

  196. Merger & Acquisition Activity

    $35.00

  197. SELECTED ACQUISITIONS & DIVESTITURES

    $60.00

  198. Manufacturing (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  199. Manufacturing (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  200. Marketing - General

    $35.00

  201. Marketing - Synthetic Engine Oil (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  202. Marketing - Synthetic Engine Oil (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  203. Marketing - Synthetic Engine Oil (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  204. Marketing - Antifreeze

    $35.00

  205. Other Synthetic Fluids Marketing Strategies

    $35.00

  206. Distribution (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  207. Distribution (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  208. COMPANY PROFILES - SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS & FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS TO 2018

    $1,400.00

  209. Company Profiles Methodology

    $35.00

  210. AMSOIL Incorporated (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  211. AMSOIL Incorporated (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  212. Ashland Incorporated (Valvoline)

    $35.00

  213. Autoparts Holdings (Prestone)

    $35.00

  214. BASF SE

    $35.00

  215. Berkshire Hathaway (Lubrizol) (Chemtool) (CPI)

    $35.00

  216. BP plc (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  217. BP plc (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  218. Calumet Specialty Products (Royal Purple) (Bel-Ray) (TruSouth) (United Petroleum) (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  219. Calumet Specialty Products (Royal Purple) (Bel-Ray) (TruSouth) (United Petroleum) (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  220. Calumet Specialty Products (Royal Purple) (Bel-Ray) (TruSouth) (United Petroleum) (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  221. Chemtura Corporation

    $35.00

  222. Chevron Corporation (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  223. Chevron Corporation (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  224. Chevron Phillips Chemical Company

    $35.00

  225. CLC Lubricants Company

    $35.00

  226. ConocoPhillips

    $35.00

  227. Dow Chemical Company

    $35.00

  228. Dow Corning

    $35.00

  229. DuPont (EI) de Nemours

    $35.00

  230. Eastman Chemical Company (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  231. Eastman Chemical Company (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  232. Exxon Mobil (1 of 3)

    $35.00

  233. Exxon Mobil (2 of 3)

    $35.00

  234. Exxon Mobil (3 of 3)

    $35.00

  235. FUCHS Petrolub

    $35.00

  236. Houghton International

    $35.00

  237. Milacron LLC (CIMCOOL) (Oak International)

    $35.00

  238. Old World Industries

    $35.00

  239. Petróleos de Venezuela (CITGO) (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  240. Petróleos de Venezuela (CITGO) (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  241. Phillips 66 (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  242. Phillips 66 (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  243. Quaker Chemical

    $35.00

  244. Royal Dutch Shell

    $35.00

  245. Total SA (1 of 2)

    $35.00

  246. Total SA (2 of 2)

    $35.00

  247. Warren Oil Company

    $35.00

  248. Additional Companies Mentioned in the Study

    $35.00

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