Disposable Medical Supplies

As Quoted In Plastemart

A greater volume of patient care activity, a growing incidence of diseases and disorders, and stricter infection prevention safeguards will benefit demand for disposable medical supplies.

US demand to reach $46.7 billion in 2016

US demand for disposable medical supplies is forecast to increase 4.3 percent annually to $46.7 billion in 2016. Growth will be promoted by an expanding volume of patient care activity spurred by aging demographic patterns, a rising incidence of diseases and disorders, and the extension of health insurance coverage by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (if left unmodified and phased in according to schedule).

Demand for disposable medical supplies will also build upward momentum as hospitals, outpatient facilities and other health care establishments adopt stricter infection prevention safeguards to meet standards recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Health care cost containment pressures will remain the major moderating influence on growth in the US disposable medical supplies market.

Drug delivery devices to remain largest, fastest growing

Drug delivery devices will remain the largest and fastest growing group of disposable medical supplies, with demand reaching $12.2 billion in 2016. Growth will reflect an expanding number of chronic care patients who require surgery or continuous therapy. This trend, coupled with the introduction of new higher value-added, safety enhanced products, will boost demand for several single use products, including prefillable syringes and inhalers, intravenous catheters, oxygen therapy disposables, hemodialysis bloodlines and peritoneal dialysis kits.

Tissue sealants lead wound management supplies gains

US demand for wound management supplies will reach $10.1 billion in 2016. Tissue sealants composed of polymers and bioengineered substances, along with alginate, foam, collagen and growth factor wound dressings, will exhibit the fastest gains based on safe and effective healing properties. Conversely, demand for bandages will expand at a below average pace due to limited pricing flexibility and the overall lack of proprietary types. First aid kits will fare the best among products in this group, building momentum from trends promoting selftreatment.

Class IV surgical drapes and gowns will net the best sales gains among nonwoven medical textiles as infection prevention safeguards are upgraded by hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers. Disposable face masks will also fare well in the marketplace, benefiting from routine use by medical providers in direct contact patient procedures. New enhanced absorbent, odor neutralized undergarments and shields will see the fastest gains in demand among incontinence products based on comfort and protection advantages.

Study Scope

This study analyzes the $37.8 billion US disposable medical supplies industry. It presents historical demand data for the years 2001, 2006 and 2011, and forecasts for 2016 and 2021 by product (e.g., drug delivery devices, wound management supplies, nonwoven medical disposables, diagnostic and laboratory disposables, infection prevention supplies, surgical disposables), market (e.g., hospital, home health care, outpatient, physicians’ office, nursing home, dental office) and raw material (e.g., plastic resins, nonwoven fabrics, paper and paperboard, rubber).

The study also considers market environment factors, details industry structure, evaluates company market shares and profiles 25 industry players, including Johnson & Johnson, Covidien and Becton Dickinson.

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Purchase Disposable Medical Supplies by the Section

  1. Disposable Medical Supplies

    $5,100.00

    1. 1 INTRODUCTION

      $82.00

    2. 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

      $102.00

      1. Table | DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

    3. 3 MARKET ENVIRONMENT

      $1,369.00

      1. 3.1 General

        $82.00

      2. 3.2 Economic Factors

        $125.00

        1. Table | MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS (billion dollars)

      3. 3.3 Demographic Trends

        $101.00

        1. Table | POPULATION BY AGE GROUP (million persons)

      4. 3.4 Heath Care Trends

        $823.00

        1. 3.4.1 Health Insurance

          $92.00

          1. Table | HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE OF THE US POPULATION (million)

        2. 3.4.2 Medical Conditions

          $143.00

          1. Table | ACUTE CONDITIONS BY TYPE (million)

          2. Table | CHRONIC CONDITIONS BY TYPE (million)

        3. 3.4.3 National Health Expenditures

          $160.00

          1. Table | NATIONAL HEALTH EXPENDITURES BY CATEGORY (billion dollars)

          2. Table | NATIONAL HEALTH EXPENDITURES BY SOURCE (billion dollars)

        4. 3.4.4 Medical Providers

          $255.00

          1. Table | HOSPITALS & HOSPITAL BEDS BY TYPE

          2. Table | OUTPATIENT FACILITIES

          3. Table | PHYSICIANS & PHYSICIANS' OFFICES (thousand)

          4. Table | OTHER MEDICAL PROVIDERS

        5. 3.4.5 Patient Activity

          $156.00

          1. Table | HOSPITAL ACTIVITY

          2. Table | SURGICAL PROCEDURES (thousand)

          3. Table | OUTPATIENT EPISODES (million)

          4. Table | DIAGNOSTIC TESTS (million)

      5. 3.5 Medical Product Markets

        $266.00

        1. Table | MEDICAL PRODUCT DEMAND BY TYPE (billion dollars)

        2. 3.5.1 Pharmaceuticals

          $82.00

        3. 3.5.2 Medical Supplies & Devices

          $140.00

    4. 4 RAW MATERIALS

      $705.00

      1. 4.1 General

        $82.00

        1. Table | DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) RAW MATERIALS DEMAND BY TYPE (million dollars)

      2. 4.2 Plastic Resins

        $458.00

        1. Table | PLASTIC RESINS DEMAND IN DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) BY TYPE (million pounds)

        2. 4.2.1 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

          $82.00

        3. 4.2.2 Polypropylene

          $82.00

        4. 4.2.3 Low Density Polyethylenes

          $82.00

        5. 4.2.4 Thermoplastic Elastomers

          $82.00

        6. 4.2.5 Acrylics

          $82.00

        7. 4.2.6 Polycarbonate

          $82.00

        8. 4.2.7 ABS

          $82.00

        9. 4.2.8 High Density Polyethylenes

          $82.00

        10. 4.2.9 Thermoplastic Polyesters

          $82.00

        11. 4.2.10 Polyurethane

          $82.00

        12. 4.2.11 Other Plastic Resins

          $82.00

      3. 4.3 Nonwoven Fabrics

        $82.00

        1. Table | NONWOVEN FABRIC DEMAND IN DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) (million dollars)

      4. 4.4 Paper & Paperboard

        $82.00

        1. Table | PAPER & PAPERBOARD DEMAND IN DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) (million dollars)

      5. 4.5 Rubber

        $82.00

        1. Table | RUBBER DEMAND IN DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) (million dollars)

      6. 4.6 Other Raw Materials

        $82.00

        1. Table | OTHER RAW MATERIALS DEMAND IN DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) (million dollars)

    5. 5 PRODUCT OVERVIEW

      $453.00

      1. 5.1 General

        $93.00

        1. Table | DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      2. 5.2 Historical Demand Patterns

        $82.00

        1. Table | DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) HISTORICAL DEMAND 2001-2011

      3. 5.3 Regulations

        $82.00

      4. 5.4 Supply & Device Reprocessing

        $82.00

      5. 5.5 Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs)

        $82.00

      6. 5.6 Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)

        $82.00

      7. 5.7 US Trade

        $82.00

        1. Table | US TRADE IN DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) (million dollars)

      8. 5.8 International Markets

        $94.00

        1. Table | WORLD DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) DEMAND BY REGION (billion dollars)

    6. 6 DRUG DELIVERY PRODUCTS

      $1,657.00

      1. 6.1 General

        $82.00

        1. Table | DRUG DELIVERY PRODUCTS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      2. 6.2 Infusion Products

        $333.00

        1. Table | INFUSION PRODUCTS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 6.2.1 IV Administration Sets

          $82.00

          1. Table | IV ADMINISTRATION SETS DEMAND BY TYPE

        3. 6.2.2 Premixed IV Solutions

          $82.00

          1. Table | PREMIXED IV SOLUTIONS DEMAND BY TYPE (million dollars)

        4. 6.2.3 IV Catheters

          $82.00

          1. Table | IV CATHETERS DEMAND BY TYPE

        5. 6.2.4 Other Infusion Products

          $82.00

          1. Table | OTHER DISPOSABLE INFUSION PRODUCTS DEMAND BY TYPE (million dollars)

      3. 6.3 Hypodermic Products

        $385.00

        1. Table | HYPODERMIC PRODUCTS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 6.3.1 Prefillable Syringes

          $228.00

          1. Table | PREFILLABLE SYRINGES DEMAND BY TYPE

        3. 6.3.2 Hypodermic Syringes

          $82.00

          1. Table | HYPODERMIC SYRINGES DEMAND BY TYPE

        4. 6.3.3 Hypodermic Needles

          $82.00

          1. Table | HYPODERMIC NEEDLES DEMAND*

      4. 6.4 Inhalation Products

        $523.00

        1. Table | INHALATION PRODUCTS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 6.4.1 Prefillable Inhalers

          $263.00

          1. Table | PREFILLABLE INHALERS DEMAND BY TYPE

        3. 6.4.2 Anesthesia Disposables

          $82.00

          1. Table | ANESTHESIA DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        4. 6.4.3 Oxygen Therapy Supplies

          $82.00

          1. Table | OXYGEN THERAPY SUPPLIES DEMAND (million dollars)

        5. 6.4.4 Nebulizers & Accessories

          $82.00

          1. Table | DISPOSABLE NEBULIZERS & ACCESSORIES DEMAND (million dollars)

        6. 6.4.5 Humidifiers

          $82.00

          1. Table | DISPOSABLE HUMIDIFIERS DEMAND (million dollars)

        7. 6.4.6 Other Inhalation Disposables

          $82.00

          1. Table | OTHER INHALATION DISPOSABLES DEMAND (million dollars)

      5. 6.5 Dialysis Disposables

        $236.00

        1. Table | DIALYSIS DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 6.5.1 Hemodialysis Disposables

          $89.00

          1. Table | HEMODIALYSIS DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        3. 6.5.2 Peritoneal Dialysis Disposables

          $101.00

          1. Table | PERITONEAL DIALYSIS DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      6. 6.6 Transdermal Patches

        $97.00

        1. Table | TRANSDERMAL PATCHES DEMAND* (million dollars)

    7. 7 WOUND MANAGEMENT SUPPLIES

      $1,715.00

      1. 7.1 General

        $82.00

        1. Table | WOUND MANAGEMENT SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      2. 7.2 Wound Closures

        $586.00

        1. Table | WOUND CLOSURES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 7.2.1 Sutures

          $142.00

          1. Table | SUTURES DEMAND BY TYPE (million dollars)

        3. 7.2.2 Surgical Staples

          $105.00

          1. Table | SURGICAL STAPLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        4. 7.2.3 Tissue Sealants

          $144.00

          1. Table | TISSUE SEALANTS DEMAND (million dollars)

        5. 7.2.4 Other Wound Closures

          $136.00

          1. Table | OTHER WOUND CLOSURES DEMAND (million dollars)

      3. 7.3 Disposable Bandages

        $449.00

        1. Table | DISPOSABLE BANDAGES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 7.3.1 Adhesive Bandages

          $128.00

          1. Table | ADHESIVE BANDAGES DEMAND (million dollars)

        3. 7.3.2 Adhesive Tapes

          $82.00

          1. Table | ADHESIVE TAPES DEMAND (million dollars)

        4. 7.3.3 Cast Bandages & Accessories

          $82.00

          1. Table | CAST BANDAGES & ACCESSORIES DEMAND (million dollars)

        5. 7.3.4 Gauze & Gauze Bandages

          $82.00

          1. Table | GAUZE & GAUZE BANDAGES DEMAND (million dollars)

        6. 7.3.5 Pads & Compresses

          $82.00

          1. Table | PADS & COMPRESSES DEMAND (million dollars)

        7. 7.3.6 Other Disposable Bandages

          $82.00

          1. Table | OTHER DISPOSABLE BANDAGES DEMAND (million dollars)

      4. 7.4 Wound Dressings

        $467.00

        1. Table | DISPOSABLE WOUND DRESSINGS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 7.4.1 Biological & Synthetic Wound Dressings

          $346.00

          1. Table | BIOLOGICAL & SYNTHETIC WOUND DRESSINGS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        3. 7.4.2 Non-Adherent Dressings

          $89.00

          1. Table | NON-ADHERENT WOUND DRESSINGS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      5. 7.5 Other Wound Management Supplies

        $150.00

        1. Table | OTHER DISPOSABLE WOUND MANAGEMENT SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 7.5.1 First Aid Kits

          $82.00

        3. 7.5.2 Medical Sponges

          $82.00

        4. 7.5.3 Cotton Products

          $82.00

    8. 8 NONWOVEN MEDICAL DISPOSABLES

      $877.00

      1. 8.1 General

        $84.00

        1. Table | NONWOVEN MEDICAL DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      2. 8.2 Nonwoven Garments & Textiles

        $525.00

        1. Table | NONWOVEN MEDICAL GARMENTS & TEXTILES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 8.2.1 Surgical & Patient Gowns

          $165.00

          1. Table | NONWOVEN SURGICAL & PATIENT GOWNS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

          2. Table | NONWOVEN SURGICAL GOWNS DEMAND

          3. Table | NONWOVEN PATIENT GOWNS DEMAND

        3. 8.2.2 Surgical Drapes

          $124.00

          1. Table | NONWOVEN SURGICAL DRAPES DEMAND BY APPLICATION (million dollars)

        4. 8.2.3 Face Masks

          $82.00

          1. Table | NONWOVEN FACE MASKS DEMAND BY TYPE (million dollars)

        5. 8.2.4 Other Nonwoven Medical Garments & Textiles

          $131.00

          1. Table | OTHER NONWOVEN MEDICAL GARMENTS & TEXTILES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      3. 8.3 Incontinence Disposables

        $267.00

        1. Table | INCONTINENCE DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 8.3.1 Adult Undergarments

          $82.00

        3. 8.3.2 Adult Shields

          $82.00

        4. 8.3.3 Underpads

          $82.00

        5. 8.3.4 Other Incontinence Disposables

          $82.00

    9. 9 OTHER DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES

      $2,560.00

      1. 9.1 General

        $82.00

        1. Table | OTHER DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      2. 9.2 Diagnostic & Laboratory Disposables

        $608.00

        1. Table | DIAGNOSTIC & LABORATORY DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 9.2.1 Diabetes Testing Supplies

          $122.00

          1. Table | DIABETES TESTING SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        3. 9.2.2 Blood Collection Supplies

          $82.00

          1. Table | BLOOD COLLECTION SUPPLIES DEMAND (million dollars)

        4. 9.2.3 Disposable Labware

          $82.00

          1. Table | DISPOSABLE LABWARE DEMAND (million dollars)

        5. 9.2.4 Diagnostic Catheters

          $123.00

          1. Table | DIAGNOSTIC CATHETERS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        6. 9.2.5 Other Diagnostic & Laboratory Disposables

          $221.00

          1. Table | OTHER DIAGNOSTIC & LABORATORY DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      3. 9.3 Infection Prevention Supplies

        $969.00

        1. Table | INFECTION PREVENTION SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 9.3.1 Sterilization Supplies

          $563.00

          1. Table | STERILIZATION SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

          2. Table | STERILE CONTAINERS DEMAND BY TYPE (million dollars)

          3. Table | STERILIZATION WRAP DEMAND BY TYPE (million dollars)

          4. Table | STERILIZATION INDICATORS DEMAND BY TYPE (million dollars)

        3. 9.3.2 Examination & Surgical Gloves

          $232.00

          1. Table | DISPOSABLE MEDICAL GLOVES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

          2. Table | EXAMINATION GLOVES DEMAND

          3. Table | SURGICAL GLOVES DEMAND

        4. 9.3.3 Waste Disposal Supplies

          $148.00

          1. Table | MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      4. 9.4 Surgical Disposables

        $519.00

        1. Table | SURGICAL DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 9.4.1 Procedural Kits & Trays

          $207.00

          1. Table | PROCEDURAL KITS & TRAYS DEMAND BY TYPE (million dollars)

        3. 9.4.2 Surgical Catheters

          $205.00

          1. Table | SURGICAL CATHETERS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        4. 9.4.3 Surgical Instruments

          $82.00

          1. Table | DISPOSABLE SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        5. 9.4.4 Plastic Surgical Drapes

          $82.00

          1. Table | PLASTIC SURGICAL DRAPES DEMAND (million dollars)

      5. 9.5 All Other Disposable Medical Supplies

        $403.00

        1. Table | ALL OTHER DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 9.5.1 Patient Room Supplies

          $82.00

          1. Table | PATIENT ROOM SUPPLIES DEMAND (million dollars)

        3. 9.5.2 Urinary Disposables

          $121.00

          1. Table | URINARY DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        4. 9.5.3 Ostomy Disposables

          $110.00

          1. Table | OSTOMY DISPOSABLES DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        5. 9.5.4 Enema Disposables

          $97.00

          1. Table | ENEMA DISPOSABLES DEMAND (million dollars)

    10. 10 MARKETS

      $619.00

      1. 10.1 General

        $82.00

        1. Table | DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) DEMAND BY MARKET (million dollars)

      2. 10.2 Hospital Market

        $116.00

        1. Table | HOSPITAL DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 10.2.1 Market Overview

          $82.00

        3. 10.2.2 Disposable Medical Supplies Demand

          $82.00

      3. 10.3 Home Health Care Market

        $82.00

        1. Table | HOME HEALTH CARE DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      4. 10.4 Outpatient Market

        $137.00

        1. Table | OUTPATIENT DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

        2. 10.4.1 Ambulatory Surgery Centers

          $82.00

        3. 10.4.2 Urgent Care Centers

          $82.00

        4. 10.4.3 General Medical Clinics

          $82.00

        5. 10.4.4 Other Outpatient Facilities

          $82.00

      5. 10.5 Physicians' Office Market

        $82.00

        1. Table | PHYSICIANS' OFFICE DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      6. 10.6 Nursing Home Market

        $82.00

        1. Table | NURSING HOME DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      7. 10.7 Dental Office Market

        $82.00

        1. Table | DENTAL OFFICE DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

      8. 10.8 Other Health Care Markets

        $82.00

        1. Table | OTHER HEALTH CARE MARKETS DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) DEMAND BY PRODUCT GROUP (million dollars)

    11. 11 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

      $4,159.00

      1. 11.1 General

        $82.00

        1. Table | US DISPOSABLE MEDICAL SUPPLIES (DMS) SALES BY COMPANY, 2011 (million dollars)

      2. 11.2 Market Share

        $171.00

      3. 11.3 Competitive Strategies

        $82.00

      4. 11.4 Mergers & Acquisitions

        $82.00

        1. Table | SELECTED ACQUISITIONS & DIVESTITURES

      5. 11.5 Licensing & Related Agreements

        $86.00

        1. Table | SELECTED COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS

      6. 11.6 Research & Development

        $82.00

      7. 11.7 Marketing & Distribution

        $82.00

      8. 11.8 Manufacturing

        $82.00

      9. 11.9 Company Profiles

        $3,519.00

        1. 11.9.1 Abbott Laboratories

          $116.00

        2. 11.9.2 Ahlstrom Corporation

          $86.00

        3. 11.9.3 Ansell Limited

          $130.00

        4. 11.9.4 Bard (CR) Incorporated

          $172.00

        5. 11.9.5 Baxter International Incorporated

          $96.00

        6. 11.9.6 Becton, Dickinson and Company

          $194.00

        7. 11.9.7 Boston Scientific Corporation

          $127.00

        8. 11.9.8 Braun (B.) Melsungen AG

          $87.00

        9. 11.9.9 Cardinal Health Incorporated

          $130.00

        10. 11.9.10 ConvaTec Incorporated

          $121.00

        11. 11.9.11 Covidien plc

          $315.00

        12. 11.9.12 GlaxoSmithKline plc

          $82.00

        13. 11.9.13 Hospira Incorporated

          $99.00

        14. 11.9.14 Johnson & Johnson

          $304.00

        15. 11.9.15 Kimberly-Clark Corporation

          $144.00

        16. 11.9.16 Medline Industries Incorporated

          $200.00

        17. 11.9.17 Medtronic Incorporated

          $115.00

        18. 11.9.18 Novartis AG

          $95.00

        19. 11.9.19 Smith & Nephew plc

          $102.00

        20. 11.9.20 Smiths Group plc

          $112.00

        21. 11.9.21 STERIS Corporation

          $82.00

        22. 11.9.22 Svenska Cellulosa AB

          $82.00

        23. 11.9.23 Teleflex Incorporated

          $259.00

        24. 11.9.24 Terumo Corporation

          $139.00

        25. 11.9.25 3M Company

          $161.00

      10. 11.10 Additional Companies Mentioned in the Study

        $82.00

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