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This study analyzes the global market for caps and closures. The closures included herein are those used on containers intended for disposal after use. A significant degree of overlap exists among product categories. For example, some trigger dispensers are outfitted with child-resistant features. For purposes of this report, a closure is categorized by the primary function of the closure. In the example here, the closure would be categorized as a child-resistant closure.
Products covered include:
threaded closures, including standard threaded (screw caps), pressurized, and vacuum
unthreaded closures (e.g., lids, overcaps, aerosol closures, synthetic cork
dispensing closures (e.g., shaker tops, push-pull caps, twist-open closures, spigot closures, grinder closures)
child-resistant closures (including screw-on/push-and-turn, plastic snap off, squeeze tab, specialty types
screw and lug (vacuum and nonvacuum)
roll-on pilfer proof (ROPP)
aluminum vial seals
caps for composite cans
other metal closures (e.g., metal paint and chemical can lids, decorative metal container lids, aluminum seals, shake and spout dispensers, aluminum overcaps for fragrance containers, child-resistant unthreaded caps)
rubber (e.g., vial stoppers)
Excluded from the scope of this study are:
caps and closures that are an integral part of the container (e.g., aerosol can valve assemblies, metal and composite can tops, peel-up aluminum lids)
home canning and bottling closures
glass and paperboard closures
closures for industrial bulk containers
flexible closures such as twist ties or foil lidding
and caps and closures used in nonpackaging applications (e.g., valve covers, distributor caps, pen caps, food storage containers lids, liquor decanter closures)
Markets for these products include:
bottled water (still and sparkling)
carbonated soft drinks
milk (dairy milk)
other beverages (such as fruit drinks, ready-to-drink coffee and tea, and sports drinks, liquor and spirits, alternative milk products)
other markets (e.g., personal care products, household cleaning products, automotive chemicals, paints and coatings, durable goods such as art supplies)
Historical data (2009, 2014, and 2019) and forecasts for 2024 and 2029 are presented for caps and closures demand in units and current US dollars (including inflation) by product and market on a country-by-country and region-by-region basis. The terms “shipments”, “production”, and “output” are used interchangeably in the study, as are the terms “demand”, “sales”, and “market”, which are defined as domestic shipments, plus imports, minus exports.
Demand by Region
Global demand for caps and closures is projected to reach just over 2.4 trillion units, valued at nearly $68 billion in 2024:
About half of these increases will be in the Asia/Pacific region, already the largest regional market. Advances in the region will be fueled by healthy growth in food and beverage output, the main drivers of demand for caps and closures.
Above average increases are also anticipated in the Africa/Mideast region, though growth in that region will come from a much smaller base.
Western Europe is projected to register growth well below the global average. Nonetheless, opportunities will exist, especially for value-added products such as tamper-evident and dispensing products.
Growth in North America will be boosted by increases in the dominant US market, where bottled water and pharmaceuticals are expected to see healthy gains through 2024.
Demand in East European market will decelerate from the pace seen during the 2014-2019 period, as the economies of countries in the region slow.
Demand by Material
Plastic closures will account for 92% of new demand in absolute terms. Trends affecting demand for plastic closures include:
The long-term shift in the packaging mix away from glass and metal containers will support plastic closure demand, as plastic containers tend to employ plastic closures.
Increasing lightweighting of packaging will support use of plastic caps over metal caps.
Rising consumer demand for smaller container sizes for bottled water and carbonated soft drinks (CSD) will buoy demand for plastic closures.
The compatibility of plastic closures with most container types will boost demand. However, a deceleration in unit growth will reflect the already significant penetration of plastic containers in most markets.
The growing presence of metal cans in some beverage container markets will limit closures demand to some extent.
Demand by Market
Demand for caps and closures is determined by trends in consumer preferences and trends in packaging. The primary end users of caps and closures include manufacturers and packagers of beverages, foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and toiletries, household cleaning products, automotive fluids, and other goods.
Caps and closures trade activity is more significant than for many other forms of packaging:
One major reason for this is that caps and closures are smaller than other packaging products, making them more efficient to transport than larger or heavier packaging materials.
In addition, opening sizes on containers such as beer and soft drink bottles tend to be standardized, while other container sizes are often not.
The nature of certain closure products also supports international trade. The most obvious example is cork. Since cork trees are primarily indigenous to Portugal, Spain, and – to a lesser extent – a few other nearby locations, other European countries and the US are almost entirely dependent on cork imports to satisfy demand, although there is extensive manufacturing of cork stoppers in some countries where there are no cork trees.
Global demand for caps and closures is expected to rise 1.9% yearly through 2024 to over 2.4 trillion units valued at $68 billion. Gains will be driven by rising global demand for packaged beverage and food, pharmaceutical, and household products. Key trends include:
The Asia/Pacific and Africa/Mideast regions will see the fastest gains, while demand in Western Europe will stagnate.
Beverages will remain the largest market for caps and closures despite continued stagnation in the beer and milk markets.
Demand for bottled water caps and closures will see the fastest growth globally, with pharmaceutical applications also seeing a solid rate of growth.
Unlike many other industries, the global caps and closures market has not been severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic due to the wide range of applications in which they are used, many of which are essential or in consumer-oriented applications that were less affected by pandemic-related restrictions.
Plastic Caps & Closures Will Continue to Gain Market Share
Demand for plastic caps and closures will be boosted by the ongoing shift from glass and metal to plastic containers due to such advantages as plastic’s:
ability to reduce loss due to breakage
ability to meet demand for a wider range of design options, including dispensing and child-resistant versions
However, metal closures will remain dominant in the beer market, as they remain the preferred closure for beer bottles. Metal roll-on screw caps will gain share in the wine market as single-serve wine bottles increase in popularity.
Bottled Water Will Experience the Fastest Growth in Most Global Markets
Bottled water will remain the largest market for caps and closures. Growth in developed regions will be supported by consumer demand for convenience and beverages that are perceived as being healthy. In developing regions, the lack of safe and accessible water sources, as well as growing consumer spending power, will support gains. However, closures for bottled water are dominated by basic, lower priced products, and will continue to see a trend toward downsizing to reduce costs even further.
Pharmaceutical Applications Will Experience Healthy Increases
Pharmaceutical applications, which account for around 10% of global demand for caps and closures, are expected to see above average growth. Sustained increases in pharmaceutical manufacturing and health expenditures – as well as ongoing efforts by drug makers to remain in compliance with government regulations and industry standards involving the child-resistant, senior-friendly, and security features of packaging systems – will boost demand. Growth in value terms will also benefit from increased use of more expensive dispensing and other functional closures that aid in the administration of oral liquid, topical, and other selected medicines.